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怎樣檢測電線電纜故障

電線電纜如何檢修出故障
電線電纜故障可概括為接地、短路、斷線三類,具體分以下幾類

  (1)短路故障。電纜兩芯或三芯短路。

  (2)接地故障。電纜一芯或多芯接地。

  (3)斷線故障。電纜一芯或多芯被故障電流燒斷或外力破壞搞斷,形成完全或不完全斷線。

  (4)閃絡性故障。這種故障大多發生在預防性試驗中,并多數出現在電纜接頭處。當所加電壓達某一值時擊穿,電壓低至某一值時絕緣又恢復。

  同時具有兩種或兩種以上的性質的故障稱之為綜合性故障,天津津成電線電纜綜合性故障直觀很難發現,需借助測試電纜故障的儀器才能確定故障的位置.

  總的來說,電纜故障可概括為接地、短路、斷線三類!

  電纜故障點的查找方法:

  (1) 測聲法: 所謂測聲法就是根據故障電纜放電的聲音進行查找,該方法對于高壓電纜芯線對絕緣層閃絡放電較為有效。此方法所用設備為直流耐壓試驗機。電路接線如圖1所示,其中SYB為高壓試驗變壓器,C為高壓電容器,ZL為高壓整流硅堆,R為限流電阻,Q為放電球間隙,L為電纜芯線。放電,在故障處電纜芯線對絕緣層放電產生“滋、滋”的火花放電聲,對于明敷設電纜憑聽覺可直接查找,若為地埋電纜,則首先要確定并標明電纜走向,再在雜噪聲音最小的時候,借助耳聾助聽器或醫用聽診器等音頻放大設備進行查找。查找時,將拾音器貼近地面,沿電纜走向慢慢移動,當聽到“滋、滋”放電聲最大時,該處即為故障點。使用該方法一定要注意安全,在試驗設備端和電纜末端應設專人監視。

  (2) 電橋法:電橋法就是用雙臂電橋測出電纜芯線的直流電阻值,再準確測量電纜實際長度,按照電纜長度與電阻的正比例關系,計算出故障點。該方法對于電纜芯線間直接短路或短路點接觸電阻小于1Ω的故障,判斷誤差一般不大于3m,對于故障點接觸電阻大于1Ω的故障,可采用加高電壓燒穿的方法使電阻降至1Ω以下,再按此方法測量。


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